There are several different parenting styles.
The main four identified by researchers are:
- Authoritarian- parents impose rules and expect obedience. Failure to follow through will result in punishment. These parents have high expectations and demands on their children.
- Permissive- parents submit to their children's desires. These parents tend to be indulgent and very lenient. They use little punishment and try to be more of a friend than parental figure. They have trouble setting boundaries.
- Authoritative- parents are both demanding and responsive. These parents establish rules and guidelines and tend to be more democratic, willing to listen and are more responsive.
- Uninvolved- parents who are have little to no contact with their children and are generally detached from their lives. Some of these parents can cause neglect or even reject their own children.
Reasons for Choosing A Parenting Style
There are several different reasons for choosing a parenting style; culture, religion,
family size, socioeconomic status and education are some potential influences. What happens when a mother and father have two different styles, one being permissive
and the other authoritarian? In order to live cohesively the two must combine elements
to create a unique approach. "Research on children's development shows that the most positive outcomes for children occur when parents use democratic styles" (Ianelli, 2004).
What effects do these styles have on children?
- Authoritarian parenting may lead to obedient children but may rank lower in self-esteem and happiness.While these children try to live up to their parents high expectations and avoid punishment, they might feel love is contingent on their behavior. Self esteem can be low due to verbal or physical punishments when their not obedient.
- Permissive parenting may result in children who rank low in self regulation and perform poorly in school.They tend to be demanding and selfish. "Children are often impulsive, aggressive, and lacking in independence and in personal responsibility" (Ianelli, 2004).
- Authoritative parenting tends to result in happy, well adjusted successful offspring. These children tend to be socially responsible, able to control aggression and self-confident. "They grow up experiencing safe boundaries, against which they are also encouraged to push and question in a mutually respectful environment" (Ianelli, 2004).
- Uninvolved parenting tends to cause emotionally withdrawn and delinquency in adolescence. These children have increased fear and anxiety due to lack of family support. They are at higher risk for substance abuse or become involved in unhealthy relationships as adults.